What are (Airport) Slots in Aviation and How do they Affect your Private Jet Flight?


As you prepare for your private flight, you may come across a term that could influence your travel plans: airport slots. These seemingly small details can have a significant impact on the smoothness of your journey, especially when traveling to busy destinations during peak-season.

So, what exactly are airport slots, and why should you care about them? In this article, we will explore the ins and outs of airport slots in the private aviation industry, how they can affect your private flight experience, and what you can do to minimize their impact on your travel plans.

What are (airport) slots?

In essence, airport slots are permissions granted to an airline or aircraft to take off or land at a specific airport during a particular time slot. These time slots are allocated in advance, and airlines or aircraft operators must apply for them before operating their flights.

The allocation of airport slots is managed by IATA, the International Air Transport Association, and is a complex process. Airport slots are typically allocated based on a combination of historical usage, airport capacity, and demand for airport services.

In general, slots are 15 or 20-minute intervals and may be seasonal, with higher demand during peak travel periods.

Airway slots

In addition to airport slots, there are also airway slots. Sometimes, certain areas of the airspace can get congested - for example during thunderstorms when a high number of aircraft are using the same airspace to fly around it. In this case, Eurocontrol may restrict the number of aircraft allowed to fly in those areas at the same time, with airway slots.

Why and where are airport slots used?

Airport slots are used at airports with high risk of overcongestion, either all year round or during peak season. According to IATA, over 1.5 billion passengers - 43% of global traffic - depart from over 200 slot coordinated airports each year.

They categorize airports into three categories based on their traffic volume and infrastructure: 

  • Level 1 - non-coordinated airports. Most airports in the world do not require slot allocation; they have sufficient capacity to accommodate all the flights that operate to and from them.

  • Level 2 - slot facilitated airports. These airports may face some degree of congestion during peak travel periods. A facilitator is appointed to coordinate planned operations, with flights required to notify their flight schedules in advance, and potential alternative operating hours to avoid exceeding airport capacity.

  • Level 3 - coordinated airports. Large airports experience significant congestion and require full slot allocation. These airports are subject to stringent slot allocation rules and regulations, as demand is higher than the airport’s capacity at that time.

Why airport slots matter for private jet travel

Private jet passengers may wonder why airport slots matter to them, given that they are not traveling on commercial airlines. The truth is, airport slots have a significant impact on private jet travel as well.

Firstly, they can significantly impact travel time. Without a slot allocation, private jets may be forced to wait on the tarmac, resulting in increased costs and delays. Additionally, slots can affect the availability of airport services, such as ground handling, fueling, and other amenities that are essential for a seamless travel experience. A lack of availability of these services due to slot constraints can lead to extended waiting times and unexpected delays, which impacts the intended flight schedule.

Moreover, airport slots can impact the flexibility of private jet travel scheduling. This is a very important factor, as flexibility is usually one of the major advantages of private jet travel. With slot constraints, private jet operators may not be able to land or depart from an airport at their desired time.

When do airport slots matter most?

The impact of airport slots on air travel can be particularly pronounced during peak travel seasons, when demand for air travel is at its highest. Some airports may even move from a level 2 to level 3 during specific times of the year because of this.

One of the busiest seasons for airport slots is the summer, particularly in the southern regions of Europe. During this time, popular holiday destinations such as the Mediterranean coast and the Greek islands experience a surge in demand for air travel, leading to increased pressure on airports to allocate desirable slots.

Another season when airport slots can have a significant impact on air travel is the winter, particularly for skiing destinations. Ski resorts in Europe and North America attract a significant number of private jet travelers during the winter months, leading to a surge in demand for airport slots. This increased demand can make it challenging to secure desirable slots for private jet travel.

If, for example, you are planning to travel to Geneva during winter for a skiing trip, obtaining slots can be very hard, especially with last-minute travel plans. In this case, your private jet broker may advise you to fly to a nearby airport, such as Sion or Chambery, to avoid extended delays or inconvenience for you as a client.

Minimizing the risk of airports slots on your travel plans

Securing optimal airport slots for private jet travel can be a complex process, over which you have rather limited influence. However, with careful planning and the right strategies, it is possible to minimize its impact on your itinerary.

One key strategy for securing optimal slots is to plan ahead. To mitigate the impact of airport slot allocation on private jet travel, it is crucial to plan ahead and secure slots in advance, especially during seasons of high demand. Private jet operators should have a clear understanding of their travel itinerary and destinations well in advance. This allows them to submit slot requests in a timely manner, increasing the chances of securing desirable slots. Moreover, being flexible with travel dates and times can also increase the chances of securing optimal slots.

Working with a private jet broker can also be advantageous for securing optimal airport slots. Experienced private jet brokers will be able to offer valuable insights into the slot allocation process and strategies for securing optimal slots for their clients.


Understanding airport slots and their impact on private jet travel is crucial for ensuring a seamless and enjoyable travel experience.

Airport slots matter for private jet travel due to their impact on travel time, the availability of airport services, and the flexibility of travel scheduling. Understanding the importance of airport slots and implementing strategies to secure optimal slots can help private jet travelers to have a seamless and enjoyable travel experience.

Planning ahead and working with a reputable and experienced private jet broker are the most effective strategies for securing optimal airport slots and minimizing the impact of slots on your private jet travel plans.

Have any questions about airport slots, or private jet travel in general? Our private jet brokers are more than happy to help!

private@the-aviation-factory.com / +32 (0) 32 39 60 00

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